{2.14} The consequences of an action will be painful or beneficial depending on whether the obstacles were present in the concept or implementation of an action.

{2.15} Painful effects of any object or situation can be a result of one or more of the following:

changes in the perceived object,

the desire to repeat pleasurable experiences,

and the strong effect of conditioning from the past.

In addition, changes within the individual can be contributing factors.

{2.16} Painful effects that are likely to occur should be anticipated and avoided

{2.17}  The cause of actions that produce painful effects is the inability to distinguish what is perceived from what perceives.

{2.18} All  that is perceived includes not only the external objects but also the mind and the senses.

They share three qualities: HEAVINESS, ACTIVITY, and CLARITY. 

They have two types of effects: to EXPOSE  the perceiver to their influences, or to provide the means to find the distiction between them and itself.

{2.19} All that is perceived is related by the common sharing of the three qualities.

{2.20} That which perceives is not subject to any variations. But, it always perceives through the mind

{2.21} All that can be perceived has but one purpose: to be perceived

{2.22} The existence of all objects of perceptions and their appearance is indipendent of the needs of the individual perceiver. They exist without  individual  reference, to cater for the different needs of different individuals.

{2.23} All that is perceived, whatever it is and whatever its effect may be on a particular individual,

has but one ultimate purpose.

That is to clarify the distiction between the external that is seen and the internal that sees.